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Warmist Laments about UN climate summit: ‘The result has been an embarrassment’ – Lima, Peru, Climate change negotiations: One word undermines the entire thing.

Climate Depot - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 19:58
http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2014/12/14/lima_peru_climate_change_negotiations_one_word_undermines_the_entire_thing.html The U.N. process isn’t where the action is on climate anymore. Progressive cities, transformative industries, and mass protests have the best chance of providing the tipping point that’s needed. These talks are a distraction from the kind of urgent, on-the-ground work that needs to happen in order to steer the world’s economy toward a [...]

New Yorker’s ‘Climate Change’ Carols Feature ‘Silent Night’ Cannibalism

Climate Depot - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 17:07

Natural variation in satellite DNA of Drosophila [Population Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Tandemly repeating satellite DNA elements in heterochromatin occupy a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes. Although often characterized as genomic parasites deleterious to the host, they also can be crucial for essential processes such as chromosome segregation. Adding to their interest, satellite DNA elements evolve at high rates; among Drosophila,...

NK cell expression of TNFSF14/LIGHT [Immunology and Inflammation]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Interactions between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) aid DC maturation and promote T-cell responses. Here, we have analyzed the response of human NK cells to tumor cells, and we identify a pathway by which NK–DC interactions occur. Gene expression profiling of tumor-responsive NK cells identified the very...

SERT-ERp44 association and insulin requirement [Medical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) regulates the level of 5-HT in placenta. Initially, we found that in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), whereas free plasma 5-HT levels were elevated, the 5-HT uptake rates of trophoblast were significantly down-regulated, due to impairment in the translocation of SERT molecules to the cell surface. We...

Reinstatement of cortical oscillations [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Reinstatement of neural activity is hypothesized to underlie our ability to mentally travel back in time to recover the context of a previous experience. We used intracranial recordings to directly examine the precise spatiotemporal extent of neural reinstatement as 32 participants with electrodes placed for seizure monitoring performed a paired-associates...

Phytochrome controls alternative splicing [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Plants monitor the ambient light conditions using several informational photoreceptors, including red/far-red light absorbing phytochrome. Phytochrome is widely believed to regulate the transcription of light-responsive genes by modulating the activity of several transcription factors. Here we provide evidence that phytochrome significantly changes alternative splicing (AS) profiles at the genomic level...

Stat3 protects mutant photoreceptors [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Inherited photoreceptor degenerations (IPDs), a group of incurable progressive blinding diseases, are caused by mutations in more than 200 genes, but little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of photoreceptor (PR) death. Increased retinal expression of STAT3 has been observed in response to many retinal insults, including IPDs, but the...

Autophagy controls iNKT cell development [Immunology and Inflammation]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular homeostatic pathway essential for development, immunity, and cell death. Although autophagy modulates MHC antigen presentation, it remains unclear whether autophagy defects impact on CD1d lipid loading and presentation to invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and on iNKT cell differentiation in the thymus. Furthermore,...

Topological sensitivity of biological models [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Mathematical models of natural systems are abstractions of much more complicated processes. Developing informative and realistic models of such systems typically involves suitable statistical inference methods, domain expertise, and a modicum of luck. Except for cases where physical principles provide sufficient guidance, it will also be generally possible to come...

Genetic foundation of horse domestication [Evolution]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
The domestication of the horse ∼5.5 kya and the emergence of mounted riding, chariotry, and cavalry dramatically transformed human civilization. However, the genetics underlying horse domestication are difficult to reconstruct, given the near extinction of wild horses. We therefore sequenced two ancient horse genomes from Taymyr, Russia (at 7.4- and...

Auxin and leaf polarity [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Stem cells are responsible for organogenesis, but it is largely unknown whether and how information from stem cells acts to direct organ patterning after organ primordia are formed. It has long been proposed that the stem cells at the plant shoot apex produce a signal, which promotes leaf adaxial-abaxial (dorsoventral)...

Conformational nanobody interactions with LacY [Biochemistry]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
The lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY), a highly dynamic polytopic membrane protein, catalyzes stoichiometric galactoside/H+ symport by an alternating access mechanism and exhibits multiple conformations, the distribution of which is altered by sugar binding. We have developed single-domain camelid nanobodies (Nbs) against a LacY mutant in an outward (periplasmic)-open...

Absolute position TIRM with an optical tweezer [Applied Physical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
A noninvasive, in situ calibration method for total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented, which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle’s absolute position relative to a...

Detergent-free isolation of KcsA in nanodiscs [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
A major obstacle in the study of membrane proteins is their solubilization in a stable and active conformation when using detergents. Here, we explored a detergent-free approach to isolating the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA directly from the membrane of Escherichia coli, using a styrene-maleic acid copolymer. This polymer self-inserts into...

Greenland ice dynamics from laser altimetry [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
We present a new record of ice thickness change, reconstructed at nearly 100,000 sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from laser altimetry measurements spanning the period 1993–2012, partitioned into changes due to surface mass balance (SMB) and ice dynamics. We estimate a mean annual GrIS mass loss of 243...

Economic optimization of global pandemic strategy [Medical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies...

PCGEM1 regulates c-Myc and tumor metabolism [Medical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 12/15/2014 - 14:05
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. In prostate cancer, prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1) is an androgen-induced prostate-specific lncRNA whose overexpression is highly associated with prostate tumors. PCGEM1’s tumorigenic potential has been recently shown to be in...
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