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Preschool support trajectory of hippocampal growth [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Building on well-established animal data demonstrating the effects of early maternal support on hippocampal development and adaptive coping, a few longitudinal studies suggest that early caregiver support also impacts human hippocampal development. How caregiving contributes to human hippocampal developmental trajectories, whether there are sensitive periods for these effects, as well...

Soil NO emissions in dryland ecosystems [Environmental Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important trace gas and regulator of atmospheric photochemistry. Theory suggests moist soils optimize NO emissions, whereas wet or dry soils constrain them. In drylands, however, NO emissions can be greatest in dry soils and when dry soils are rewet. To understand how aridity and vegetation...

Prion proteins in plants [Plant Biology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Prion proteins provide a unique mode of biochemical memory through self-perpetuating changes in protein conformation and function. They have been studied in fungi and mammals, but not yet identified in plants. Using a computational model, we identified candidate prion domains (PrDs) in nearly 500 plant proteins. Plant flowering is of...

Layer-by-layer assembly for NIR-II imaging [Medical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:49
Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1,000–1,700 nm) features deep tissue penetration, reduced tissue scattering, and diminishing tissue autofluorescence. Here, NIR-II fluorescent probes, including down-conversion nanoparticles, quantum dots, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and organic dyes, are constructed into biocompatible nanoparticles using the layer-by-layer (LbL) platform due to its modular...

Developmental obstetric dilemma (DOD) hypothesis [Anthropology]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
The bony pelvis of adult humans exhibits marked sexual dimorphism, which is traditionally interpreted in the framework of the “obstetrical dilemma” hypothesis: Giving birth to large-brained/large-bodied babies requires a wide pelvis, whereas efficient bipedal locomotion requires a narrow pelvis. This hypothesis has been challenged recently on biomechanical, metabolic, and biocultural...

Brief intervention cuts suspension rates in half [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. Experiment 1 tested whether teachers (n = 39) could be encouraged to adopt an empathic rather than punitive mindset about discipline—to value students’ perspectives and sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior. Experiment 2 tested whether an...

Anti-lymphoma peptibodies [Medical Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
B-cell lymphomas express a functionally active and truly tumor-specific cell-surface product, the variable region of the B-cell receptor (BCR), otherwise known as idiotype. The tumor idiotype differs, however, from patient to patient, making it a technical challenge to exploit for therapy. We have developed a method of targeting idiotype by...

Warm spring reduced impact of summer drought [Sustainability Science]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world’s fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting...

Effects of musical intervention in infancy [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
Individuals with music training in early childhood show enhanced processing of musical sounds, an effect that generalizes to speech processing. However, the conclusions drawn from previous studies are limited due to the possible confounds of predisposition and other factors affecting musicians and nonmusicians. We used a randomized design to test...

Competitive mothers [Economic Sciences]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
Recent advances have highlighted the evolutionary significance of female competition, with the sexes pursuing different competitive strategies and women reserving their most intense competitive behaviors for the benefit of offspring. Influential economic experiments using cash incentives, however, have found evidence suggesting that women have a lower desire to compete than...

Investigating memory updating via reconsolidation [Neuroscience]

PNAS Early Edition Articles - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 13:48
Reconsolidation theory proposes that retrieval can destabilize an existing memory trace, opening a time-dependent window during which that trace is amenable to modification. Support for the theory is largely drawn from nonhuman animal studies that use invasive pharmacological or electroconvulsive interventions to disrupt a putative postretrieval restabilization (“reconsolidation”) process. In...

Study shows benefit of New York nuclear units

World Nuclear News - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 09:27
The overall benefits of keeping New York's upstate nuclear power plants in operation under the state's Clean Energy Standards program would significantly outweigh the costs, a study by economists at the Brattle Group has found.

Recovering the safety margin of nuclear reactors

World Nuclear News - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 09:22
Age is no barrier to prolonging the operation of nuclear power plants thanks to technological advances that could not have been predicted by reactor designers working decades ago. That was the conclusion of nuclear industry leaders at a conference hosted recently by EDF Energy and the World Association of Nuclear Operators in London.

Current Solar Cycle Continues To Be The Weakest In Almost 200 Years

Climate Depot - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 08:59
Special to Climate Depot Weakest In Almost 200 Years …Planet At The Mercy Of The Sun Current Solar Cycle Continues To Be The Weakest In Almost 200 Years …Planet At The Mercy Of The Sun By P Gosselin on 25. April 2016 – Via NoTricksZone The following is the solar part of the latest post [...]

EU increases Chernobyl funding on eve of anniversary

World Nuclear News - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 08:43
The European Commission today pledged to the Nuclear Safety Account fund the largest part of the €45 million ($51 million) expected from the G7 and the Commission in addition to the existing support. This fund supports in particular the safe decommissioning of units 1 to 3 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

Studsvik, Kobe Steel team up for Japanese waste management

World Nuclear News - Mon, 04/25/2016 - 07:33
Sweden's Studsvik and Kobe Steel of Japan have agreed to extend their existing cooperation by forming a joint venture to provide radioactive waste management solutions to the Japanese nuclear industry.

Oceanic transport of surface meltwater from the southern Greenland ice sheet

Nature Geoscience Advanced Online - Sun, 04/24/2016 - 23:00

Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo2708

Authors: Hao Luo, Renato M. Castelao, Asa K. Rennermalm, Marco Tedesco, Annalisa Bracco, Patricia L. Yager & Thomas L. Mote

The Greenland ice sheet has undergone accelerating mass losses during recent decades. Freshwater runoff from ice melt can influence fjord circulation and dynamics and the delivery of bioavailable micronutrients to the ocean. It can also have climate implications, because stratification in the adjacent Labrador Sea may influence deep convection and the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Yet, the fate of the meltwater in the ocean remains unclear. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model to show that only 1–15% of the surface meltwater runoff originating from southwest Greenland is transported westwards. In contrast, up to 50–60% of the meltwater runoff originating from southeast Greenland is transported westwards into the northern Labrador Sea, leading to significant salinity and stratification anomalies far from the coast. Doubling meltwater runoff, as predicted in future climate scenarios, results in a more-than-double increase in anomalies offshore that persists further into the winter. Interannual variability in offshore export of meltwater is tightly related to variability in wind forcing. The new insight that meltwaters originating from the west and east coasts have different fates indicates that future changes in mass loss rates and surface runoff will probably impact the ocean differently, depending on their Greenland origins.

These 7 Predictions From The Original Earth Day Were Way Off | The Daily Caller

Climate Depot - Sun, 04/24/2016 - 16:55
These 7 Predictions From The Original Earth Day Were Way Off | The Daily Caller https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wordpress.com/2016/04/22/these-7-predictions-from-the-original-earth-day-were-way-off-the-daily-caller/ Environmentalists truly believed and predicted that the planet was doomed during the first Earth Day in 1970, unless drastic actions were taken to save it. Humanity never quite got around to that drastic action, but environmentalists still recall the [...]

Physicist: 175 nations signed, Paris ‘climate insanity hasn’t come to force yet’

Climate Depot - Sun, 04/24/2016 - 16:54
175 nations signed, Paris climate insanity hasn’t come to force yet http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/LuboMotlsReferenceFrame/~3/gNR2QBeK8LQ/175-nations-signed-paris-climate.html Era of consumption without worries is just getting startedVladimir Lenin would celebrate a birthday yesterday so a couple of his true heirs – who want to cripple the world economy for much of the 21st century, much like their guru did 100 years [...]

George Will: Scientific silencers on the left are trying to shut down climate skepticism

Climate Depot - Sun, 04/24/2016 - 16:51
Scientific silencers on the left are trying to shut down climate skepticism http://junkscience.com/2016/04/scientific-silencers-on-the-left-are-trying-to-shut-down-climate-skepticism-2/ “Authoritarianism, always latent in progressivism, is becoming explicit.” — gReader Pro
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